Mechanisms of Diseases

  • Genetic Mechanism by Justin Traille, Marcus Mendiola, Jenna Joseph

1. A genetic mechanism is mutated genes that cause production of abnormal proteins. They often do not perform the tasks they need to. Therefore, there is an absence of the necessary functions. Some times, the functions are performed in an abnormal way, which is more harmful.
2.It is a blood disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin is produced, causing red blood cells (RBCs) to deform into sickle shape.
-Hemoglobin is the protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood.
Sickle cell anemia is the severe form of the disease, whereas sickle cell trait is the milder form.
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3.It is a genetic disorder caused by a defect in the HBB gene, which codes the production of hemoglobin. If 2 defective genes are present, it causes sickle cell anemia.
Sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait are inherited diseases. They are passed down by genetics. The chances of getting the disease are broken down as follows: If each parent carries 1 sickle hemoglobin gene and one normal gene, each child has a 25% chance of inheriting 2 defective genes and having sickle cell anemia. Also, they have a 25% chance of inheriting both normal genes and not having the disease. Lastly, they have a 50% chance of being unaffected by the disease like the carrier parents.
Picture of Problems with Sickle Cells. N.d. Personal photograph by author.
Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2010. <
"Genetic Disease Profile: Sickle Cell Anemia." Genomics. N.p., n.d. Web. 22
Sept. 2010.

  • Infectious Mechanism - By: Arlena De La Rosa, Jasreet Dhillon, and Kevin Cameron Jay.
    Definition from book: Pathogenic organisms or particles that damage the body in some way.
    Another source: A clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions.
    Describe the disease: Herpes and Fever Blisters are simplex viruses can cause infections that affect the mouth, the face, the genitals, the skin, the buttock, and anal area. When Herpes simplex lesions appear in their most common location, around the mouth and lips, people often refer to them as "cold sores" or "fever blisters". Type 1 Herpes are above the waist and type 2 are below the waist.
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“Abnormal tissue growths or neoplasms(tumors [benign or malignant] and cancers) that can cause a variety of physiological disturbances.” -Source 1
“uncontrolled cell growth (mitosis) that often produces a tumor (a neoplasm) that may or may not be cancerous.” -Source 2
2. Cancer is a disease in which a group of cells grows uncontrollably to form a tumor in most cases. Cancer is caused by abnormalities of transformed cells.
3. Cancer is a type of neoplasm caused by hyperplasia, where the body produces too many cells, which are then uncontrollably divided. Neoplasms are tumors or abnormal collections of cells, as cancerous tumors form. Cancer tumors can take over areas of the body, causing disturbances to basic functions.

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Source 1:Thibodeau, Gary A., PhD, and Kevin T. Patton, PhD. "Pathophysiology." The Human
Body in Health and Disease. 5th ed. St. Luis: Mosby Elsevier , 2010.
106-107. Print.
Source 2: Phoenix 5. N.p., 2002. Web. 22 Sept. 2010. <
Picture: Childs, Dan. "Girl to Have Giant Facial Tumor Removed ." ABC News,
2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2010. <

  • Traumatic Mechanism by Kayla Richard, Ana Diaz, Danica Hom

Traumatic mechanisms include: physical & chemical agents (toxic), extreme temperatures or mechanical injury (trauma),

radiation that can affect the normal homeostasis of the body a serious injury or shock to the body, as from violence or an accident
Radiation sickness is ionizing radiation. It can be mild to severe depending in length/ intensity/ amount and location of exposure
Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea to fetal injury, cancer, cataracts, and even death.

This disease falls under traumatic mechanism because radiation is a toxic agent and affects the normal homeostasis of the body. it can also be very serious.

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Radiation Sign


Thibodeau, Gary A,, PhD, and Kevin T. Patton, PhD. The Human Body In Health & Disease. N.p.: Mosby Elsevier, n.d. Print.
  • Metabolic Mechanism By Andrea Aranzamendez, Gabby Blanco, and Neil Omaque: Basic mechanisms of disease are based on the disturbance of homeostasis and the body's response to that disturbance. Among the many mechanisms, diseases categorized in the metabolic mechanism deal with endocrine balances or malnutrition that may cause a lack of obtaining nutrients. Within this mechanism, it focuses on the bicarbonate buffer system and two other metabolic buffers (phosphate buffer system and protein buffer system). The bicarbonate buffer system deals with an acid-base homeostasis for living organisms, as the metabolic mechanism controls and regulates bicarbonate (a base) through the kidneys. Within the metabolic mechanism, various types of diseases are caused by this mechanism such as Insulin Shock, caused by overdosing injections, decreased food intake, and excessive exercise. Hypoglycemic (low blood pressure) shock can be distinguished by nervousness, sweating and chills, irritability, hunger, and pallor - which can progress to convulsions, comas, and death (if left untreated).
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  • Insulin shock is a prime example of a disease that involves the metabolic mechanism, which includes both endocrine imbalances and malnutrition. Insulin shock can be a result of an overdose of injection of insulin, decreased food intake, and excessive exercise. These all result in low blood sugar (glucose), meaning an insufficient intake of nutrients.
  • Works Cited
  • Inflammatory Mechanism (By: Melissa Nguyen, Kayla Rusta, and Ria Escober)
    • Autoimmunity
      • Book definition: Faulty response or overreaction of the immune system that causes it to attack the body
      • Other source: failure of an organism to recognize its own consituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues
    • Inflammation

      • Book definition: common responses of the body to disturbances
      • Other source: part of the complex biological purpose of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants
      • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs. It is basically a serious complication of other STDs such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea. It can damage the organs and tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. It can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Each year in the US, more than 750,000 women experience an episode of acute PID. PID occurs when bacteria moves upward from a woman’s vagina to her reproductive organs. Because of the bacteria, this causes the uterus to inflame, possibly leading to infections.
      • Connection: Inflammation is when structures inflame in order to try to remove the injury and start the healing process. In our disease, the reproductive structures (uterus and fallopian tubes) begin to inflame in order to heal the tissue that was infected by the bacteria.
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      • Works Cited:
      • “Autoimmunity.” Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <‌wiki/‌Autoimmunity>.
      • “Inflammation.” Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <‌wiki/‌Inflammation>.
      • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌dtmcms/‌live/‌webmd/‌consumer_assets/‌site_images/‌articles/‌health_tools/‌pelvic_pain_slideshow/‌princ_rm_photo_of_pelvic_inflammatory_disease.jpg>.
      • “pelvic Inflammatory Disease- - CDC Fact Sheet.” CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <‌std/‌pid/‌stdfact-pid.htm>

  • Degeneration By Vincent Nguyen,Sam Singh,Bandon Choi,
      • The book describes Degeneration-as the breaking apart of tissues. The process of one or more tissues resulting from diseases that can occurs at any time. On the Webster Dictionary Online, the definition describes the deterioration of a tissue or an organ in which its function is diminished or its structure is impaired.
      • The aging and of one or more tissues by unknown means, One example is Age- related macular degeneration (AMD) it is the leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. macular_degeneration3.jpeg

      • Macular-Degeneration.jpegAMD affects the macula that part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail, it doesn’t hurt but it causes cells to die. Regular eye exams can detect macular degeneration and you can treat it to slow it down but it will not restore your vision.

        Degeneration ruins homeostasis because the tissues break apart. The body is not in normal condition because it is missing tissues that it previously used to function.


        1.Chiropractic Colleges, Association Of. "Degeneration." EChiropractic - Home. Association of Chiropractic Colleges, 4 June 2001. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <>.
        2.Shiel Jr, William C., and Melissa C. Stöppler. "Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Arthritis) Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms and Treatment by" Osteoarthritis (OA or Degenerative Arthritis). 5 Dec. 2005. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. <>.