Mechanisms of Diseases

Genetic Mechanism by Sofie Aguirre, Amanda Ang, and Kathreece Farrales

    • altered or mutated genes that cause the production of abnormal proteins
    • the proteins don’t perform the job theyre supposed to do, so an essential function may be missing or disruptive
    • they mess up the constancy of the body’s internal environment
    • a disease cause by abnormalities in an individuals genetic material (Human Genome Project)

Disease - Albinism
the lack of the dark brown pigment melanin in theskin. Also, it results in vision problems and susceptibility to sunburn as well as skin cancer.

external image copy-of-albino-bear-2.jpgexternal image 9620.jpg
Why it's a genetic disease:
Albinism falls under the category of a genetic condition because vision problems and discoloration on the skin result from the lack of dark brown melanin. Therefore, it is unable to produce the color in the skin and block out ultraviolet radiation which makes them more susceptible to skin cancer and sunburn.

Works Cited:
"Albinism." Google Health. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. < >.
"13 Albino Animals | Listicles." Listicles: Articles That Are Lists That Are Articles That Are Lists (On a Blog). 19 May 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. < >.
"Genetic Disease Information." Genetic Disease Information. 21 July 2008. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. < >.
"Structure and Function: Biology of the Skin: Merck Manual Home Edition." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most Important Condition Is the Human One. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. < >.

Infectious Mechanism (Mitra Shokri, Julia Wrona, Jessica Kesler)

1. book source: Infectious mechanism is a pathogenic organism or particle that damages the body in some way. It’s a parasite, an organism that lives in or on another organism to obtain its nutrients. The presence of microscopic-size or larger parasites may interfere with normal body functions of the host and thereby cause disease. Another other type of organism can poison or otherwise damage the human body to cause disease.
outside source: An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness that is the result from pathogenic microbial agents. These pathogenic viruses are pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and prions. They all cause disease in animals and plants.
2. Description of Bites and Stings:
external image coloring-insects-for-kids-thumb9406469.jpg&t=1
(Arachnida and insecta)
The symptoms of bites and strings (usually from different insects) usually result in toxins being released at the injury site. Some people may be hypersensitive to certain toxins release by the bite or sting and they may have an allergic reaction that can even have the end result be death.
3. Infection Mechanism
The disease of bites and stings can be classified as a infectious mechanism because it transmits pathogens when the culprit is a vector (tick or biting insect). Pathogenic organisms or particles that damage the body in some way. In the case of bites and stings the insects are the parasites that invade the host body and interfere with bodily functions and thereby cause disease. At spot of the bite or sting, toxins are released that may poison or damage the human body.

“Infectious Disease.” Wikipedia. N.p., 19 Sept. 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌wiki/‌Infectious_disease>.

"Google Image Result for" Google. Web. 23 Sept. 2010. <,r:12,s:0&tx=60&ty=80>

Neoplastic Mechanism

Matthew Ramson, Celena Bonner, Ming Chung

1) Definition:
(Book) Neoplastic Mechanism: Abnormal growths (neoplasm), including tumors and cancers that cause physiological disturbances.
(Free Dictionary) An abnormal new growth of tissue in animals or plants; a tumor.

2) Disease Description: Lung Cancer: Lung Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs that impede on healthy lung function. This obstruction of lung function prevents the spread of oxygen throughout the blood stream. Lung Cancer is one of the most common and one of the most preventable kinds of cancer.


3) How disease falls under category: Neoplastic Mechanisms are the development of cancerous tumors. Lung Cancer develops by means of tumors forming within the bronchi. The physiological disturbances caused by lung cancer include the stoppage of getting oxygen to the body.

Works Cited
Lung Cancer 101.” Lung Cancer. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌reading/‌about.php>.
“Neoplastic.” The Free Dictionary. Farlex, 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌Neoplastic >.
“Understanding Lung Cancer - The Basics .” WebMD. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌lung-cancer/‌guide/‌understanding-lung-cancer-basics>.

Traumatic Mechanism

1. Definition of Traumatic Mechanism (from book): Physical and chemical agents such as toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury (trauma), and radiation that can affect the normal homeostasis of the body. These conditions include injuries such as fractures and lacerations caused by physical trauma or poisoning caused by chemical agents.

2. Definition of Traumatic Mechanism (from internet): An injury or abnormality, which can often be radiographically identified if not seen on the surface of the skin. Examples of these injuries include the following: Fractures, dislocations, subluxations, and muscle tears. Non-mechanical trauma to the musculoskeletal system can result from thermal and electrical burns, and exposure to chemical substances.

  • Burn is an injury to tissues caused by the factors listed in which the extent of the injury is proportional to exposure to the causative agent and percent of body area affected; it causes "burning" pain and resulting inflammation response. Untreated or severe may become infected and may cause severe fluid loss.

    In easier terms, a burn is an injury to tissues resulting from contacting with physical agents such as heat, chemicals, or friction.

    It is classified into three categories.
  • a. Depth and number of tissues layers involved
    b. Total body area affected
    c. Type of homeostatic mechanism that are damaged or destroyed

    There are first-degree burns that cause minor discomfort and some redding of the skin. There is no blistering occurs but actual tissue destruction is minimal.

    There are second-degree burns that involve the deep epidermal layers and cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis. Symptoms include blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling and lid loss.

    Third degree burns are characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis. Tissue death extends below the primary skin layers. Circulatory shock, fluid imbalances, respiratory injury, and infections are common complications.
    3. Most people think of a burn as an injury caused by fire or by contact of the skin with a hot surface, but exposure to ultraviolet light or contact with skin with an electric current or harmful chemicals.
    A burn falls under the traumatic mechanism because it is caused by a physical and chemical agent such as extreme heat or cold, electricity, friction, chemical, and radiant or electromagnetic energy. external image burns-picture.jpg
  • "Physical Trauma." Medcyclopaedia. General Electric Company, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <>
  • "Burns." Static. Howstuffworks, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <>

Metabolic Mechanism
Definition: (book) endocrine imbalances or malnutrition that causes insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients.
Definition:(online) Your endocrine system is a complex network comprised of integrated hormone-producing glands and organs. Its function, like that of the nervous system, is communication; the endocrine system produces and releases different types of hormones to maintain and control a number of important functions throughout the body, including growth and development, metabolism, and tissue function. A hormone imbalance (either too much or too little hormone volume) can have a drastic effect on body function. A number of different conditions can affect the way the endocrine system functions. As an effect of the body it can create malnutrition. Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when a person's body is not getting enough nutrients. The condition may result from an inadequate or unbalanced diet, digestive difficulties, absorption problems, or other medical conditions. Malnutrition can occur because of the lack of a single vitamin in the diet, or it can be because a person isn't getting enough food. Starvation is a form of malnutrition. Malnutrition also occurs when adequate nutrients are consumed in the diet, but one or more nutrients are not digested or absorbed properly.

Insulin -- Insulin regulates glucose, or sugar intake, by helping it move from the blood into cells. It is one of the types of hormones produced by the pancreas.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM)
- aka NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) or adult onset diabetes
- insensitivity of target cells to unsolin
- high blood glucose as a resuly of the pancreatic islets secreting little insulin
- "Insulin Resistance" because body cells don't respond when insulin is present in the body
Definitions just in case!
- Pancreatic islets - endocrine part of the pancreas
- Insulin -hormones produced by pancras that regulates the amount of glucose in blood

external image type-2-diabetes.jpg

Metabolic Mechanism – endocrine imbalances or malnutrition that cause insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients
Diseases caused by this mechanism:
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

GDM – is a chronic disease caused by the inability of the pancreases to produce insulin or to use the insulin produced in the proper way

Because the metabolic mechanism is when there is an imbalance of the intake of nutrients it proves the connection between diabetes and the function of the mechanism.

"The Endocrine System & Types of Hormones: An Overview." Endocrine System Diseases, Symptoms & Treatment: The Hormone Foundation. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <>.

"Malnutrition." - Trusted, Reliable and Up To Date Health Information. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <>.

Degeneration: can be another term for “breaking apart” of tissues by means of many still unknown processes. This can be caused by a normal consequence of aging. Degeneration of one or more tissues resulting from disease can occur at any time.

Progeria: __(Huntchinson-Gilford disease) this disease is a very rare, and inherited condition in which a young child appears to be aging rapidly. In progeria, the reproductive capacity of cells seems to be diminished. The tissues of the body fail to maintain or repair themselves normally and many of the degeneration conditions more commonly seen in elderly individuals appear. Some conditions that are shown can be thin, wrinkled skin, hair loss, loss of subcutaneous fat and arthritis. On average, victims of progeria usually die of cardiovascular disease within the first or second decade of life.

external image progeria8.jpgexternal image progeria.jpg

Progeria is a disease that produces rapid aging, beginning in childhood
  • Growth failure during the first year of life
  • Narrow, shrunken or wrinkled face
  • Baldness
  • Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes
  • Short stature
  • Large head for size of face (macrocephaly)
  • Open soft spot (fontanelle)
  • Small jaw (micrognathia)
  • Dry, scaly, thin skin
  • Limited range of motion
  • Teeth - delayed or absent formation
Symptoms resemble normal human aging but happens in young children
Cause: A mutation of the gene that econdes the protein lamin A
No treatment

Progeria also called Hutchinson-Gilford disease, falls under the degeneration mechanism category because it is the abnormal diminishment of the reproductive capacity of cells. Because of the lack of reproductive capacity, the tissues of the body “fail to maintain or repair themselves normally and many of the degenerative conditions more commonly seen in elderly individuals appear.” The key word being degenerative, the body’s tissues resemble that of the elderly, which is deteriorating and losing its normal, young quality.

Google Health. "Progeria." Google Health. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.

"Progeria." Blogspot . N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. < >.

Inflammatory Mechanism

Definition of Mechanism:


Inflammation is a common response of the body to disturbances. When the inflammatory response occurs at inappropriate times or is abnormally prolonged or severe, normal tissues may be damaged. So some disease symptoms are caused by the inflammatory response.


Inflammatory response is a fundamental type of response by the body to disease and injury. It is characterized by signs of pain, heat (localized warmth), redness, and swelling. It is a key part of the body’s system of self-defense.

Inflammatory Mechanism- There are two kinds of Inflammatory Mechanisms. One is Autoimmunity, which is a faulty response or overreaction of the immune system that causes it to attack the body. It’s basically it’s self-immunity.

Description of An Autoimmune Disease:

Diabetes involves the importance of insulin in the body. While food is being digested glucose needs to enter the cells, but that’s only possible if insulin is present. There are three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Type 1 is when the body cannot produce any insulin at all. Type 2 is when the body produces an insufficient amount of insulin, or it is not working properly. Gestational diabetes only happens to women, during their pregnancy. Common symptoms consist of frequent urination, constant thirst, intense hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, increase in fatigue cuts and bruises that don’t heal properly, and many more. To prevent diabetes, if it is not genetic, it is helpful to eat the right kinds of food and have a sufficient amount of exercise.

Why is Diabetes Autoimmune?

Diabetes is a faulty response, which causes the body to attack itself. It may sound familiar because it is a sub category of inflammatory mechanisms.

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Joshi, Mohit. "Disruption in body clock genes could lead to diabetes." Top News.

N.p., 14 July 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <


"Acute Inflammation Reaction -- What You Should Know About Acute Inflammatory

Response." Allergy and Immune System. N.p., 31 Dec. 2008. Web. 21 Sept.

2010. <


"Definition of Inflammatory response." MedicineNet. N.p., 22 Jan. 2002. Web. 21

Sept. 2010. <


UnknowN. Weblog post. Immune System. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.


Autoimmunity “(immunology) An immune state in which antibodies are formed against the person's own body tissues.”

Unknown. "Autoimmunity ." Sci-Tech Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.

“All About Diabetes.” Medical News Today. Medilexicon International Ltd, 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <‌info/‌diabetes/‌diabetessymptoms.php>.

(c) Jessica Sommer, Mary Trinko, Marilen Atienza